Evolution and Adaptation: Role of Forests and Darwin’s Theory

snerfuStarred Page By snerfu, 3rd Sep 2014 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/44iv-gss/
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Darwin was a genius who predicted evolutionary patterns. Global warming has changed evolutionary patterns of many species. Forest help preserve our biodiversity and keep a check on greenhouse gases. Government of India is giving help to conserve and develop forests.

Evolution and adaptation

To understand the role of evolution one must study Darwin’s theory. One has to also know why forests are so important and why global warming is on everyone’s mind. Greenhouse gases that are so useful in trapping sun’s heat have now exceeded limits and is raising temperatures beyond normal. Of course, without these gases, earth would freeze over. Forests trap a sizable portion of carbon dioxide one of the major greenhouse gases for its own photosynthesis process to produce energy for its growth.

Understanding need for Forests

Among various aspects of forestry, soil conservation is a major player. Loss of soil fertility can lead to loss of forest cover. Perhaps it occupies an equal status as afforestation and fostering sustainable forest practices. Forests help bind forest soil together and prevent leaching or washing away by water. Of course, it is much bigger than a kitchen garden but the principles are the same.
Since the battle for preservation of forests seems to be akin to seeking and speaking to aliens, the Government is concentrating its efforts more on afforestation. Of course, it has marked several forests and forest areas as protected and this should help the cause of getting better forest cover in the country.

Global impact of deforestation

Forests like the telegraph and newspaper are destined to make an exit from our world. When it happens it will spell the end of about 90% of all biodiversity in the world. Ecosystem and evolution chain, as we know it will cease to exist. There will no longer be carbon sequestration by forests and global temperatures will rise. Sea levels will rise because of this and all coastal towns will be submerged. Now let us look at the brighter side.

Importance of forests in evolution chain

Forests are useful because they form an important link in the chain of evolution. They produce a good percentage of the oxygen present in the atmosphere. They utilize carbon dioxide present in the air to make their energy requirements and thus photosynthesis helps in ridding a good portion of the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Forests also bind the soil and prevent erosion. This is particularly useful in areas near large water bodies.
Darwin’s theories talk not only about survival and multiplication of species but also on evolution of species with time. This evolution depends on climatic factors to a great degree. So, when temperatures increase beyond normal limits, species adapt to this change by some lifestyle changes on their part. Birds and many insects adapt their breeding to the evolutionary cycle of plants. Some effects of global warming have already been seen. Here are the prominent ones.
a) Shifting of species to higher altitudes
b) Migratory birds become residents
c) Wintering grounds shift northward
d) Food supply shifts with increasing temperatures
e) Changing in lifestyle
Here are examples of the changes that have been seen.
i. Breeding habits of the Canadian squirrel have changed their lifestyle to adapt to earlier spring – this gives them enough time to store their nuts.
ii. The European Blackcap has changed its migration pattern are now choosing to winter in Britain instead of their traditional stopovers at Portugal and North Africa, because temperatures are now higher in Britain.
iii. Great tits are now laying their eggs much earlier
iv. Barn Swallows also begun breeding well ahead of the season

Support given to forests by the Government

Government of India has already put in place several measures to preserve forests and prevent harm from occurring to trees and forest animals. Some are preventive measures while others involve direct action.

A) Direct action
1. Planting trees and afforestation
2. Ecological up-gradation
3. Rain water harvesting

B) Preventive measures
1. Building alternate roads to prevent harm to animals
2. List of protected areas in India

Protected area network in India

Protected areas comprise of four categories namely National Park, Sanctuary, Conservation Reserve and Community Reserve. This network has 668 protected areas spread over 1, 61, 222 square kilometers. This consists of national parks numbering 102, wildlife sanctuaries 515, Conservation Reserves 47 and Community Reserves numbering 4. Other than this, there are 46 tiger reserves and 18 biosphere reserves. It has also identified coral reefs and mangrove areas.

Sources

1) The Effects of Climate Change on the Breeding Behavior and Migration Patterns of Birds and Mammals http://www.coloradomesa.edu/~grichard/WSS/Fall2013_pdfs/Longest_Birds_ClimateChange_102813.pdf
Dr. Susan Longest
Colorado Mesa University
• Susan Longest slongest@coloradomesa.edu
2) Charles Darwin & Evolution
http://darwin200.christs.cam.ac.uk/pages/index.php?page_id=h2
3) Protected Area Network in India http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/protected-area-network.pdf
4) Protected Areas in India http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_protected_areas_of_India

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Tags

Change, Darwin, Evolution, Forest, Government Of India, Species

Meet the author

author avatar snerfu
Bachelor, Christian, 53, settled in Madurai, India, like to watch football and tennis on TV. I also have occasional walks but try to read the Bible daily. For amusement, I read the newspaper.

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Comments

author avatar snerfu
4th Sep 2014 (#)

Many thanks for moderating my page Mr Kinsman. Hope you are doing well.

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author avatar SauravBanerjee
4th Sep 2014 (#)

Darwin's theory is a revolution in itself. An excellent write!

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author avatar snerfu
4th Sep 2014 (#)

Thanks Saurav, there are many things he said that we can learn even today.

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author avatar Delicia Powers
4th Sep 2014 (#)

Very interesting article snerfu...Maine is a state with a history of conservation-may it always remain so...So very glad that India too also stands by our forest ...!...many thanks snerfu.

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author avatar snerfu
4th Sep 2014 (#)

We stand by everyone's forest and insects and bugs. Biodiversity needs space to survive whichever part of the world it be. Good to see you Ms Powers. Hope your garden is prospering.

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author avatar Delicia Powers
4th Sep 2014 (#)

Indeed snerfu very good- our- refers to the "whole earth".. and hopefully all future generations yet to come...

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author avatar snerfu
5th Sep 2014 (#)

Man is very finicky about two things -- his candy and his forest. Some people would also add his football game, but I guess that would be his or her own personal preference.I understand you that is why I reply to your comments Ms Powers. Thanks for dropping by.

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author avatar C.D. Moore
4th Sep 2014 (#)

Glad your government is protecting forests, wish the Canadian government would do more.

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author avatar snerfu
5th Sep 2014 (#)

Maybe they are still documenting which animals to protect and which to put to sleep. Ha ha, no worry, everything will happen in its own time Ms Moore.

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author avatar cnwriter..carolina
4th Sep 2014 (#)

thank you so very much snerfu for writing this and informing people of what is going on...am sharing on twitter...

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author avatar snerfu
5th Sep 2014 (#)

Good for you and for me cnwriter. Keep showing up, it makes everything bright.

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author avatar HacBao
5th Sep 2014 (#)

I've read his theory of evolution. It is interesting

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author avatar snerfu
5th Sep 2014 (#)

Yes, many things are yet to come to light. Thanks for the look up HacBao.

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author avatar HacBao
5th Sep 2014 (#)

I, too, thank the great comment and frankly you for my article. Currently, I am trying to write grammatically correct English. Hopefully, in the future I'll get congratulations from you.

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author avatar snerfu
5th Sep 2014 (#)

Ha ha HacBao, your effort is laudable. Every writer is different that makes it all interesting. I will keep up with you.

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author avatar Mariah
5th Sep 2014 (#)

Detailed, factual and Impressive write on this subject snerfu, very well done my friend.

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author avatar snerfu
6th Sep 2014 (#)

Hello Mariah, morning is bright again, oh yeah! And many thanks for the pat.

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author avatar RBB1010
7th Sep 2014 (#)

We all, each person, each nation needs to be aware of the frailty of the ecosystem. Many animals and plants have already disappeared and many on the endangered list. I hope the future will be filled with revitalizing and not destroying. Thanks for a very good article.

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author avatar snerfu
8th Sep 2014 (#)

Yes RBB1010, ecosystem needs us to support it. We should all do our little bit to keep it ticking. Thanks for the look up.

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author avatar Sivaramakrishnan A
10th Sep 2014 (#)

Impressive and thought provoking, thanks Snerfu. It behooves us not to upset the delicate balance of nature. I recall Stephen Hawking cautioning us regarding the Higgs Boson, God Particle, that it can destroy the universe through vacuum decay. Everything in nature has a role to play and tampering with them comes at a cost. We can cross the limits unwittingly through our thoughtless actions - siva

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author avatar snerfu
6th Nov 2014 (#)

Yes Siva sir, I think Higgs Boson is concealing things from us seen from a scientific perspective. However, there will unlimited release of energy according Mr Hawkins. So, one must be careful I think.

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author avatar Phyl Campbell
11th Sep 2014 (#)

Arkansas is "the Natural State." We have many protected areas. Some people are not in love with the wildlife, but I think we are one of the great reserves for many walks of wildlife.

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author avatar snerfu
12th Sep 2014 (#)

Lucky you Phyl to be at peace with nature like Boo boo I think.

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author avatar Ptrikha
4th Nov 2014 (#)

Conserving forests is very important for all countries. if forests go, in some time, human species will also be threatened, except perhaps for a few ultra-wealthy who might have set base on Moon. Even they might not survive too long on Moon, even with all Hi-Tech gadgets with them.

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author avatar snerfu
6th Nov 2014 (#)

Yes, go hug your forests, soon there will only be the moon...like you say. And it is tough to hug the moon...except if you are very wealthy!

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