Intestine spoke about the evolution of man

radjab By radjab, 2nd Aug 2016 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/2e6k_1lv/
Posted in Wikinut>News>Science

The new study, in the course of which have been studied microbial community - microbiome - in the human gut, chimpanzees (our closest ancestors), bonobos (the so-called dwarf chimpanzees) and gorillas revealed that the microbiome form species with their Host. Thus, the scientists were able to trace the ancestry of our bacteria, which is rooted in our common ancestor that lived 15 million years ago.

Biologists have found that the evolution of bacteria in the digestive tract of humans and apes is parallel

The new study, in the course of which have been studied microbial community - microbiome - in the human gut, chimpanzees (our closest ancestors), bonobos (the so-called dwarf chimpanzees) and gorillas revealed that the microbiome form species with their Host. Thus, the scientists were able to trace the ancestry of our bacteria, which is rooted in our common ancestor that lived 15 million years ago.

Biologists have found that the evolution of bacteria in the digestive tract of humans and apes are parallel. More details about the study can be found in the journal Science.

As a result, the last years of studying bacteria in our digestive system, which continually suffer from antibiotics, stress and unbalanced diets, scientists have found that a large number of bacteria in the gut is living with us for the past 15 million years - the time when the earth still roamed our common ancestors with all pongid (including great apes, as well as other members of the genus of Homo, now extinct).

The study also showed that the microbes in our intestines are determined not only by external factors such as diet, medicine and geography, but also the history of our evolution.

With the reconstruction of the "group portrait" of the inhabitants of the intestines of our ancestors can not only find out what they eat, but also to trace their kinship and migration: for example, comparing the DNA of Southeast Africa and the United States showed that the bacteria branches diverged 1.7 million years ago - during one of the first outcomes of people from Africa.

The bacteria, which we lost

Scientists from the University of Berkeley and the University of Texas studied the DNA of the microbes contained in fecal samples 87 primates of different species. Species belonging bacteria were determined using a very conservative (that is important and therefore slowly mutating and changing) portion of the genome where the gene recorded one of the halves - subunits of DNA gyrase. This protein in bacteria busy unraveling and cutting an annular DNA which twists for every doubling. It is clear that the work of this "typewriter" for cutting and unraveling the most valuable material for the cells to be precise as a surgeon's scalpel. Therefore, experiments with such important protein evolution raises rarely using the rule "the best - the enemy of good." This makes the sequence where a protein encoded convenient model measurement long time intervals using the molecular clock - estimating the time by the number of mutations (the more long diverged species, the greater the difference can have finding), based on which one can construct a pedigree studied organisms . It is also a convenient alternative to the "fingerprints" to identify the specific strain or species.

To study the microbiota of the human or animal intestine in many scientists identify specific microbes are available, based on a certain stretch of DNA, where the encoded subunit 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), ribosome components - an important structure of a living cell, which is engaged in the assembly of protein molecules.

But these sequences varied too slow on the time scale of our species and the next ancestral species, so scientists chose gyrase.

It turned out that two families of bacteria, Bacteroidaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae (known to all of the advertising bifidobacteria yogurt), were present in the samples, and apes, and humans, but the representatives Lachnospiraceae family were lost in the process of human evolution.

We - our microbiome

Microbe - is the microbes that live in our skin, in the holes in our bodies and in our intestines. Meaning for people microbiota became evident over the past decade, when the researchers compared a population of microbes in healthy and sick people, babies and adults, as well as people of different ethnic groups around the world. In our body microbial cells more than our own. It is now known that they are passed from mother to child during birth, and constantly subject to change due to living conditions, such as diet, medication, and even because of the pet. The researchers also suggest that these bacteria can affect our mood and behavior.

"Bacteria in the gut really connected to our biology - says the study's lead author Andrew Moeller of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of Berkeley. - Through this research, we have a general scheme to learn how it all started. "

Obesity, cancer, inflammatory diseases, some of nature, such as Crohn's disease and diabetes, often associated with microscopic inhabitants of our digestive tract, in violation of the "friendly" relations and "hostile" human strains.

"Research shows that the bacteria in our stomach and intestines are direct descendants of those who lived in our common ancestry with apes, - says Andrew Moller. - This means that we pass on but their genes descendants and "bacterial legacy" inherited from the African primates. And the fact that we have lost part of it, can be one of the causes of our current diseases. "

"Now we have samples of all the major groups of mammals, and our next step - to trace the evolution of the microbiota with the period when we were tiny carnivorous creatures hundred million years ago," - says Andrew Moller.

Tags

Apes, Biologists, Digestive Tract, Evolution, Evolution Of Bacteria, Evolution Of Man, Humans, Man

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