Soil Management and Fertilizer: An Integral Part of Forest Management Techniques

snerfu By snerfu, 10th Jun 2014 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/31w_1hid/
Posted in Wikinut>News>Environment

Forest management technology is developing and awareness is spreading for the need for effective controls. Various techniques are present for regulating growth. One must also use fertilizers so that one can increase the rate at which forests grow.

Soil management and forests

Aim of forest management rests on adopting methods that is practicable and economically viable to ensure conservation of existing forests and to enhance growth of new ones. Soil management implements techniques to replenish degraded soil and take care of fertile soils. Here we discuss the different steps required for achieving solutions that are fully compliant with guidelines laid down for conservation of forests.

Soil management technology helps rejuvenate soils that have degraded in fertility below levels that are economically viable for growing any plant or crop. To raise the yield of corps, steps such as application of green manure, thorough and periodic weeding, maintaining moisture of the soil and application of chemical fertilizers are used. Depending on the crop or plant that was being raised the amount of fertilizer ranged from 200-300 kg per hectare during the first two years. From the second year on, 4 – 6 liters of herbicide is also used.

Breaking up the management process

Forest management comprises essentially of these four steps.
a) Managing local forests
b) Reforestation
c) Agroforestry
d) Raising forest nurseries

• Sustainable and rational steps for managing local forests include making rapid inventories, marking trees that are in competition, marking trees that are part of the growing group, logging, cutting creepers and helping sustain regeneration.

• For reforestation, we first identify the breed of the tree as a native or a foreign breed. Next step is to make your choice of tree type and extent of forest. Each species has a particular spacing and requires particular input of fertilizers for the initial growing period. You will require elementary procedures such as preparing the land, planting, maintenance, ant and insect control and pruning.

• Another aspect is agroforestry where you have fruit crops and agricultural crops growing side by side with forest plantations. The idea is to plant forests sufficiently distant so that the agricultural plants are not disturbed in their growth. This also requires all the steps from preparing the land to pruning.

• Forest nurseries are required and forest authorities give local people incentives to care for them. They also provide the seedlings, equipment necessary for planting and caring for them and educate them about the procedures required for their proper growth.

Benefits of forests and carbon emission

As we know, forests are beneficial for a number of reasons including generating oxygen, trapping excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and augmenting cloud formation through transpiration. The average per-capita value of carbon dioxide emission of the world is 4.23 metric tons. USA leads in this list with a figure of 20.11 metric tons. Russia is next with a value of 11.02 metric tons. According to observations from research, output in wheat production drops by 3.4 – 4.5 million tons for every 1˚C rise in temperature.

Forest development method

Forest enrichment programs envision creation of 3 – 3.5 m wide strips at intervals of 30 m. You transfer saplings of sufficient height from the forest nurseries. They maintain a spacing of 3.4 – 4.5 m for those areas where there is insufficient forest density. The natural loss lies between 30 – 40 % but even then, the forests will recover sufficiently. Plenty of forests exist throughout the world.

Forest plants – pests and endangered kinds

Pest plants are a problem in development of forest. Some of these like eucalyptus, pampas grass, giant reed, purple loosestrife and tamarisk can create huge economic loss if one is not careful. Among the list of endangered plants is Monterey Pine forests and English peak green briar. Causes for endangerment could be human interference, competition from other forest plants, pollution and habitat loss.

Use of fertilizers

Two kinds of fertilizers are in common use today. One is organic fertilizer and the other is inorganic or chemical fertilizer. Organic fertilizers comprise of sewage biomaterial, effluents from mills and fish remains. The organic biomass is treated and once they pass safety levels, you can use them for treating forest floors.

Types of fertilizers

In the inorganic category, four types of fertilizers are used. These are sulphur, boron, phosphorus and nitrogen. Forestry grade fertilizer varies between 3.5 – 4.5 mm prill diameter while agricultural grade fertilizer will be between 2.5 – 3 mm prill diameter. Nitrogen supplement proves useful for growth of lodgepole pine and Douglas fir. Urea also finds wide spread application due to its effectiveness in increasing growth rates. One has to apply urea at the rate of 430 – 485 kg/ha. Normal season for applying fertilizer is between April and September.

Keep away from no fertilizer zones

There are some no-fertilizer zones too. One has to keep a distance from these types of areas of 10 m from a flowing stream, fisheries-lake, designated fisheries—stream, and 100 m upstream of community watershed uptake area. You should leave a buffer strip around residences (60m) and agricultural lands (30m).

Credits for this page

All photographs in this page are taken from Public Domain of Pixabay and Picdrome. NB: Pictures are only indicative and do not represent the real object. I thank all my followers as also the page moderator for the support they give. I thank my friends who follow my blog. Write for Wikinut and earn — begin today. You can read more articles like this at Best articles on the web, Reviews and Product Description and My Hubpages

Tags

Fertilizer, Forest, Management, Soil

Meet the author

author avatar snerfu
Bachelor, Christian, 53, settled in Madurai, India, like to watch football and tennis on TV. I also have occasional walks but try to read the Bible daily. For amusement, I read the newspaper.

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author avatar snerfu
11th Jun 2014 (#)

Thanks for moderating my page Mr Brown.

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author avatar cnwriter..carolina
11th Jun 2014 (#)

all I can say is...wonderful..wonderful...won derful...keep them coming snerfu...

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author avatar snerfu
11th Jun 2014 (#)

You all are my inspiration thanks for everything cnwriter

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author avatar Ptrikha
11th Jun 2014 (#)

Great overview of Soil Management and Fertilizer.

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author avatar snerfu
11th Jun 2014 (#)

Thanks Ptrikha, always nice to see you.

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author avatar Fern Mc Costigan
22nd Jun 2014 (#)

Interesting post

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author avatar snerfu
22nd Jun 2014 (#)

RIght Mr Fern thanks

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